Analysis of contribution in GHG emission in atmosphere by separate sectors of municipal economy

  We consume in our homes more energy resources and, accordingly, emit into the atmosphere more greenhouse gases than in other sectors of the municipal economy.
Therefore, energy efficient measures must be actively implemented in the housing sector.

In terms of reducing energy consumption in housing, the most perspective measure is insulation of external walls of the buildings. They have the largest surface area, and therefore lose a lot of heat.
Thus, you can give a 100% affirmative answer to the question "Is it worth to do thermal modernization?" But this should be done correctly, and we will help our readers understand the intricacies of this important matter.

The state building codes (DBN) outline the basic requirements to the heat protective properties of external walls. Achievement of thermal performance specified in the building codes depends on several factors, including: the type of insulation material, its thickness, quality of work, etc. Thickness of heat insulation according to the building codes depends on the temperature zone of your city (there are only two such zones). The second temperature zone includes the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Zaporizhia, Kherson, Mykolaiv, Odesa and Zakarpattia oblasts. All other oblasts belong to the first temperature zone.

Measures to improve thermal insulation of external walls can be implemented with various insulation materials, such as: mineral (rock, basalt) wool rolls and mats, polystyrene foam and extruded foam polystyrene, polyurethane foam, foamed insulation, eco-wool, glass wool, foam glass, etc.

These insulating materials have similar heat protective properties but mineral wool is better than other insulating materials due to a number of properties.

The few drawbacks of mineral wool include quite significant weight and high cost. 1 m² of mineral wool for facade insulation costs UAH 200–300. The total cost of work including cost of materials is about UAH 550–650 /m² of external wall.

Quite popular material for insulation of external walls (especially for individual apartments in multi-apartment buildings and individual buildings) is P-25–P-35 grade polystyrene foam. The material is cheaper compared with mineral wool, very light, which facilitates insulation works at a height. However, it has several disadvantages: polystyrene foam insulated walls have poor ventilation, do not protect from the street noise, have shorter service life and are fire hazardous. Therefore, the use of polystyrene foam in the buildings of kindergartens, schools and hospitals is prohibited by the building codes.

ATTENTION! In multi-apartment buildings, use of polystyrene foam should be accompanied by the window and door openings insulation with mineral wool or other non-combustible material, and every three floors must have the continuous belts of non-combustible insulation materials.

In individual low-rise buildings in the case of polystyrene foam use, the roof bearing structures must be made of non-combustible materials (usually they are made of wood), or framing of the quirk bead zone of the wall should be insulated with non-combustible material.

It is not allowed to replace P-25…P-35 grade polystyrene foam with P-15 grade of polystyrene foam used for  packaging.

1 m² of polystyrene foam mat of 100 mm thickness costs about UAH 100.The total cost of works on insulation – UAH 300–400/m² of external wall.


A variety of polystyrene is extruded polystyrene foam. Mats of this material are more resistant to mechanical load, have low weight, low flammability, which distinguishes them from polystyrene foam mats. Combustibility of extruded polystyrene foam belongs to a medium class of materials that do not spread the fire. Closed cells of material with 0.1–0.2 mm diameter provide low water absorption and high heat protective properties; material is not subject to rotting and is non-toxic; it is frost-proof, durable, chemically resistant (except for organic solvents).

It can be used in wet conditions. But this material retains other disadvantages of polystyrene foam, such as low vapor permeability. For wall insulation, special mats with rough or waffle outer surface are used with the possibility of further application of plaster or other coating materials. The price is UAH 150/m². The total cost of insulation with extruded polystyrene foam us UAH 400/m² of outer wall.

Mats of extruded polystyrene foam and mineral wool are optimal for insulation of external walls, but it is recommended to choose material for a specific building in accordance with recommendations of the certified professionals.



Bonded heat insulation method

Heat insulation mats are attached to the wall with special glue and nailing plugs, their surface is protected with polymer-cement composites, reinforced fiberglass mesh, and a layer of decorative plaster. Every layer must dry well.

Between the mats, there are practically no gaps. As a result, an integral and even heat envelope is formed.

Ventilated façade method

Ventilated façade consists of the protective metal or aluminum facing, insulator, wind break film, façade film, façade lining.

Between the building envelope structure and the building wall, there remains a ventilated air layer that ensures free air flow. This allows the wall to be always dry, and makes sweating and moisture impossible.



1. When selecting the insulation systems, one should take into account all negative properties of the insulating materials which are harmful to human health and safety and to the environment.

2. Almost all heat insulators (except for foam glass) have such physical and mechanical characteristics that reduce their effectiveness over the period of operation in external walls of the building.

3. Insulation of external walls significantly affects the overall heat consumption in a building only if the entire building is insulated, namely insulation is made not only for the walls but also for the roof, floor above the basement or the ground floor, windows are replaced, the building entrance is reconstructed, individual heat sub-station is installed, as well as heat losses for ventilation in the house are reduced.