Let us look at typical residential building energy losses based on the specifics of their construction and taking into account when they were constructed.

In general, most of the housing stock in Ukraine’s inhabited localities consists of multi-apartment buildings built according to individual or standard design projects. The latter, in view of their mass construction, require special attention and detailed consideration.

The majority of standard buildings were constructed in the period of mass urbanization. In many countries, standard buildings are the basis for the architectural appearance of residential districts in many cities. They received significant development in the USSR and in other socialist countries. Such buildings can be grouped into reinforced concrete, block and brick buildings, based on the materials used for the construction of the bearing structures and building envelopes. In addition, wood and different wood boards were also used in serial construction (mainly, in the roof frame and in the window structures) and roofing materials. The reinforced concrete structures of standard buildings from the viewpoint of construction technology are divided into panel, cast-in-place and precast with cast-in-place.

The following residential buildings can be singled out by period of construction, along with their energy efficiency problems: